In 1865 his painting Prisoners at the Front, depicting Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow questioning Confederate captives, was acclaimed by critics and immediately established his reputation as a painter of note.
After the war Homer contributed to Harpers illustrations dealing with a variety of subjects. He then devoted his talents exclusively to genre painting, becoming one of the foremost artists in America. He is famous for his Maine seascapes, woodland scenes in the Adirondacks and, in later years, watercolors of the Bahamas.
Also 1865 was elected a member of the NAD and was further distinguished by the exhibition of his Prisoners at the Front in the Paris Exposition of 1866. Homer went to Paris that year, but little is known of his activities during the ten months he spent abroad. Domestic travel for the next 15 years included trips to the White Mountains the summers of 1868 and 1869, the Adirondacks, and Gloucester, MA, in 1873.
It is significant that, when Homer returned to Europe in 1881, he did not go back to Paris, which was bursting with American art students at the ateliers, but chose, instead, the small fishing community of Tynemouth, on the cold gray northeast coast of England. Following his return home in 1882, Homer moved from his New York studio to the rugged coast of Prout's Neck, ME. For the remainder of his life this was his home, though he continued seasonal travels to Quebec and the Adirondacks in the summer months, and to Florida, Bermuda, and Nassau in the Bahamas in the winter. He exhibited almost annually at the Brooklyn Art Association, and the NAD, where he was elected an academician in 1865, and was a member of the Century Association from 1865 until his death.
He died at Prout's Neck, Maine, September 29, 1910.